2017/5/11 木曜日

Endeavor to the Development and Record of Plate Tectonics

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Endeavor to the Development and Record of Plate Tectonics

Plate tectonics emanates from two words and phrases; plate and tectonic. Plate in geological terms signifies a big slab of tough rock while tectonics in Greek implies’ to build’. Therefore’ plate tectonic might be outlined as how the earth’s is crafted on moving the plate. It may also be well-defined as a rigid segment of your Earth’s lithosphere that moves individually from people surrounding it (Rodger, 1993). Principle of plate tectonics states which the lithosphere with the earth is made up of person plates that happen to be fragmented into a number of huge and smaller pieces of reliable rock. The plates shift upcoming to each other on top of the decreased mantle to make various http://buyessay.co/ sorts of plate borders that have shaped the Earth’s landscape around lots of many years. (Oreske & Legrand, 2001). Alfred Wegener, a popular meteorologist, is known to be the founder in the plate tectonic theory; He noticed that the coastline of East South America and that of west coast of Africa seemed to fit together in a jigsaw manner like to form a bigger plate. He then proposed an idea that all plates (continents) were once connected to a single significant plate called Pangaea which gradually began to drift apart above 300 million decades ago (Rodger, 1993). More scientific research about the plates’ coastline revealed that all the plate of earth’s continent somehow fit together. The concept was commonly known as continental drift theory, and Wegener became the founder from the theory on which scientist have based their research on. However, Alfred Wegener plate tectonics idea could not ascertain how exactly the continents drifted away from just about every other. He proposed the earth’s rotations and the centrifugal forces towards the equator as one on the possible mechanism for continental drift. He said that Pangaea started at South Pole and earth’s rotation finally caused it to break up, sending continents toward the equator. His theories were discarded by the scientific community (Rodger, 1993). Arthur Holmes, (1929), a British geologist, came up with the principle of thermal convection to explain the gradual drift with the Earth’s continents. He based on heating and cooling cycle on the Earth’s mantle that caused the continents to move. The idea has been borrowed by scientist community in their quest for earth’s shape. Today scientist have researched and analyzed past evidences and findings by geologist and scientist to expound and come up with a better ways of explaining plate tectonic theory and forces that were behind the drifting on the plates. It is believed and proofed using geological evidence that earth’s plate at one time was one super plate called Pangaea. Due to three main driving forces namely, mantle convection, gravity, and the Earth’s rotation led to the drifting away of quite a few plate from the main one. Many major plates (continents) were formed which include North America, South America, Eurasia, Africa, Indo-Australian, Pacific, and Antarctica. Expounding around the three main driving forces for the movement of your Earth’s tectonic plates; Mantle convection is the most extensively studied technique of tectonic plate movement. It was widely discussed by Holmes in 1929, in his theory. The large convection current of molten material in the Earth’s upper mantle produces a lot of energies which is transferred to lessen mantle. The lower mantle material finds their way to the crust causing the embedded rock to transfer out and away from the ridge thus transferring the plate. Evidence of this is shown at mid-ocean ridges. Gravity is evidenced by the mid-ocean ridges where the elevation is higher than the bordering ocean floor. Convection currents within the Earth cause lower mantle material to rise and spread away from the ridge, causing the older material to flow toward the ocean floor due to gravity and aid in the movement with the plates. Then lastly earth rotation is caused by centrifugal forces as earth rotates (Oreskes $ Legrand, 2001). Plates form different sorts of boundary as they interact with their movement. Some in the boundaries formed include Divergent boundaries form when a plate breaks along certain lines of weakness and transfer away from just about every other forming a new crust, for instance, Mid-ocean ridges. The other boundary is called Convergent boundaries and is created when two plates collide with one another causing the sinking of one plate below the other. Transform boundaries forms at location where new crust created and without destroying it. Today, through research, scientists have come up with various evidences proving that earth plates were once super plate which split into the current Continents. Some from the evidences include: the jig-saw fitting from the East coast of South America and west coast of Africa appear to fit into one another; Fossils remains of plants and animals collected by scientist around the world showed similarities that were tricky to explain unless continents had once been joined. For instance, Cynognathus was a land reptile. Its Fossils remains have been found in both Africa and South America, thus proving the two continents were once joined (Oreskes $ Legrand, 2001). Scientist have also found out from the evidence of earthquakes happened continually and occurred along certain lines, near the boundaries between tectonic plates. As Wegener’s ideas forms the basis why the landscape in the earth is the way it is, scientist community have currently advanced methodology of studying the plate tectonic principle. They use satellite to study evidences of plate tectonic where they position it several kilometers away from the earth surface. From the satellite statistics, it is evidenced the plates move linearly and away from each and every other at the speed of 10mm to 100mm per year, thus, proving the plate tectonic concept that is earth was once plate which gradually drifted apart over millions of several years back to form the current continents.

References

Oreskes, N., & LeGrand, H. E. (2001). Plate tectonics: An insider’s background of your modern concept of the Earth. Boulder, Colo: Westview Press. Rogers, J. J. W. (1993). A heritage from the earth. New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.

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